CPL DGCA Theory Examination Syllabus - Technical General

1. Aircraft and Engines

1.1 Airframe and Systems
- Fuselage - types of construction - stress
- Wings - types of construction - structural components - stress
- Stabilizing surfaces - vertical, horizontal and V-tail surfaces - ‘flutter’ - compensation system - mach trim
- Landing Gear - types - locking devices and emergency extension systems - accidental retraction prevention devices - position, movement lights and indicators - nose wheel steering - wheels and tyres (limitations) - braking systems - parking brake - mode of operation of anti-skid system - mode of system of auto brake system - operation, indications and warning systems
- Flight Controls - Primary controls: - elevator, aileron and rudder - trim - mode of actuation (mechanical, hydraulic, electrical, fly-by wire) - operation, indicators, warning devices and controls) - efforts to transmit
 - Secondary controls: - leading and trailing edge lift augmentation devices - lift dumping and speed brakes - variable elevator - mode of actuation (mechanical, hydraulic, electrical, fly-by wire) - operation, indicators, warning devices and controls) - danger situations and potential failures
- Hydraulics - Basic principles of hydromechanics - hydraulic fluids - schematic construction and functioning of hydraulic systems
- Hydraulic system - main, standby and emergency system - operation, indicators, warning system - ancillary system 
- Pneumatic system - power sources - schematic construction - potential failures, warning devices - operation, indicators, warning systems - pneumatic operated systems
- Air-conditioning systems - construction, functioning, operation, indicators and warning devices - heating and cooling - temperature regulation - automatic and manual - ram air ventilation - schematic construction
- Anti-ice systems - aerofoil and control surfaces, power plant, air intakes, windshield - schematic construction, operating limitations and initiation, timing of de-icing system usage - ice warning system
- Pressurization - cabin altitude, maximum cabin altitude, differential pressure - pressurized zones in the aircraft - safety devices and warning systems - rapid decompression, cabin altitude warning - emergency procedures
- Non-pneumatic operated de-ice and anti-ice systems - schematic construction, functioning and operation of: - air intake - propeller-pitot, static pressure sensor and stall warning devices - windshield - rain repellent system
 - Fuel system - Fuel tanks - structural components and types - location of tanks on single-and-multi-engine aircraft - sequence and types of re-fuelling - unusable fuel  - Fuel feed - gravity and pressure feed - cross feed  - Fuel system monitoring - operating, indicators, warning systems - fuel management (sequencing of fuel tank switching) - dip stick

1.2 Electrics


a) Director Current (DC); Direct /Alternating Current (DC/AC) - General - electric circuits - voltage, current, resistance - Ohm’s law - resistive circuits - resistance as a function of temperature - electrical power, electrical work - fuses (function, type and operation) - the electrical field - the capacitor (function) system, shock absorbers)
- Batteries - types, characteristics - capacity - uses - hazards
- Magnetism - permanent magnetism - electromagnetism: - relay, circuit breaker, solenoid valve (principle, function and applications) - electromagnetic power - electromagnetic induction
- Generators - alternator: - principle, function and applications - monitoring devices - regulation, control and protection - modes of excitation - starter generator
- Generators - alternator: - principle, function and applications - monitoring devices - regulation, control and protection - modes of excitation - starter generator
- Distribution - current distribution (buses) - monitoring of electrical flight instruments/systems: - ammeter, voltmeter - annunciators - electrical consumers - DC power distribution: - construction, operation and system monitoring - elementary switching circuits - Inverter - The aircraft structure as an electrical conductor

b) Alternating Current (AC)
- General - single and multi-phase AC - frequency - phase shift  - AC components
- Generators - 3-phase generator - brushless generator - generator drive: - constant speed drive - integrated drive
- AC power distribution - operation and monitoring - protection circuits, paralleling of Ac-generators
- Transformers - function - types and applications
- Transformer/rectifier units

c) Basic knowledge of computers - Logic circuits - Logical symbols - Switching circuits and logical symbols

1.3 Power Plant 

a) Piston engine 

  • General - design type - Principle of the 4-stroke internal combustion engine - Mechanical component 
  • Lubrication system - function - schematic construction - monitoring instruments and indicators - lubricants 
  • Air cooling - system monitoring - cylinder head temperature - cowl flaps
  •  Ignition - schematic construction and function - types of ignition - magneto check 
  •  Engine fuel supply - carburetor (construction and mode of operation, carburetor icing) - fuel injection (construction and mode of operation) - alternate air 
  •  Engine performance - pressure / density altitude - performance as a function of pressure and temperature 
  •  Power augmentation devices - turbocharger, supercharger (construction and effect on engine performance) 
  •  Fuel - types, grades - detonation characteristics, octane rating - colour coding - additives - water content, ice formation - fuel density - alternate fuels, differences in specifications, limitations 
  •  Mixture - rich and lean mixture - maximum power and fuel economy mixture setting 
  •  Propeller - fixed pitch and constant speed propeller - principles and operation of propellers on single and multi-engine aircraft - propeller check - propeller efficiency as a function of airspeed - aircraft and engine protection (propeller operation: ground/ air, coarse/fine pitch limitations) 
  •  Engine handling and manipulation - power setting, power range - mixture setting  - operational limitations 
  •  Operational criteria - maximum and minimum RPM - (induced) engine vibration and critical RPM - remedial action by abnormal engine start run-up and inflight 
b) Turbine engine 
- principles of operation - types of construction - turboprop - turbojet - turbofan 

c) Engine construction  
- Air inlet - function 
- Compressor - function - construction and mode of operation - effects of damage - compressor stall and surge (cause and avoidance) 
- Diffuser - function 
- Combustion chamber - function, types and working principles - mixing ratios - fuel injectors - thermal load 
- Turbine - function, construction and working principles - thermal and mechanical stress - effects of damage - monitoring of exhaust gas temperature 
- Jet pipe - function - different types - noise silencing devices
 - Pressure, temperature and airflow in a turbine engine 
- Reverse thrust - function, types and principles of operation - degree of efficiency - use and monitoring 
- Performance and thrust augmentation - water injection, principles of operation - use and system monitoring 
- Bleed air - effect of use of bleed air on thrust, exhaust temperature, RPM and pressure ratio 
- Auxiliary gearbox - function  

 d) Engine systems 

- Ignition - function, types, components, operation, safety aspects 
- Starter - function, type, construction and mode of operation - control and monitoring - self sustaining and idle speeds 
- Engine start malfunctions - cause and avoidance 
- Fuel system - schematic diagrams, components - operation and monitoring - malfunctions 
- Lubrication - components - operation and monitoring - malfunctions 
- Fuel - effects of temperature - impurities - additives 
 - Thrust - thrust formula - flat rated engine - thrust as a function of airspeed, air density, pressure, temperature and RPM - power plant operation and monitoring

e) Auxiliary Power Unit (APU)
- General - function, types - location - operation and monitoring
- Ram air turbine - function

1.4 Emergency Equipment

a) Doors and emergency exits - evacuation slides, general usage or as life rafts or flotation devices
b) Smoke detection - location, indicators, function test
c) Fire detection - location, warning mode, function test
d) Fire fighting equipment - location, operation, contents, gauge, function test
e) Aircraft oxygen equipment - drill, use of equipment in case of rapid decompression - oxygen generators
f) Hydraulic systems - components, fluids - operation, indication, warning systems - auxiliary systems
g) Emergency equipment - portable, hand-held fire extinguisher - smoke mask, smoke protection hood] - portable oxygen system - emergency locator beacon, transmitter - life jacket, life raft - pocket lamp, emergency lighting - megaphone - cash axe - fireproof gloves - emergency flotation system

2. Principles of Flight

2.1 Subsonic Aerodynamics

a) Basics Laws and Definitions
- Laws and definitions - units - laws of Newton - ideal gas equation - equation of impulse - equation of continuity - Bernoulli’s theorem - static pressure - dynamic pressure - viscosity - density - IAS, CAS, EAS, TAS
- Basics about airflow - stationary airflow - not stationary airflow - streamline - stream tube - two-dimensional airflow - three-dimensional airflow
- Aerodynamic forces on surfaces - resulting air force - lift - drag - angle of attack - forces and equilibrium of forces during climb, level, descent and turn
- Shape of an aerofoil - thickness of chord ratio - chordline - camberline  - nose radius - camber - angle of attack - angle of incidence
 - The wing shape - aspect ratio - root chord - tip chord - tapered wings - shape of wing surface - mean aerodynamic chord (MAC)

b) The two-dimensional airflow about an aerofoil - streamline pattern - stagnation point - pressure distribution - centre of pressure - lift and downwash - drag and wake (loss of impulse) - influence of angle of attack - flow separation at high angles of attack - the lift-graph

c) The coefficients
- The lift coefficient C - the lift formula - CL – α graph - CLmax and α - normal values of CLmax, αcrit, stall, and the slope of the CL / A.o.A curve
- The drag coefficient CD - the drag formulas: - zero lift drag - lift induced drag - CD – α graph - CL – CD graph, profile polar - CL – CD ratio - normal values of the CL – CD ratio

d) The three-dimensional airflow about an aeroplane
- Streamline pattern - span-wise flow and causes - tip vortices and local α - tip vortices and angle of attack - up-wash and down-wash due to tip vortices - span-wise lift distribution - wake turbulence behind an aircraft (causes, distribution, duration of the phenomenon)
- Induced drag - influence of tip vortices on the angle of attack - the induced local α - influence of induced angle of attack on the direction of the lift vector - induced drag and angle of attack - induced drag and speed - induced drag and wing aspect ratio - induced drag and wing planform - induced drag coefficient - induced drag coefficient and angle of attack - influence of the induced drag on the CL – α graph - influence of the induced drag on the CL – CD graph, airplane lift drag ratio - influence of plan of section - winglets - wing span loading - influence of wing twist
 
e) The total drag
- influence of change of camber - the parasite drag - profile drag - interference drag - friction drag - The profile drag and speed - the induced drag and speed - the total drag - the total drag and speed - minimum drag - the drag – speed graph

f) The ground effect  - effect on CDi - effect on αcrit - effect on CL
 - Effect on take-off and landing characteristics of an aircraft

g) The relation between the lift coefficient and the speed for constant lift - as a formula - in a graph

 h) The stall - Flow separation at increasing angles of attack - the boundary layer: - laminar layer - turbulent layer - transition - separation point - influence of angle of attack - influence on: - pressure distribution - location of centre of pressure - CL - CD - pitch moments - down-wash at horizontal stabilizer - buffet - use of controls  - The stall speed - in the lift formula - 1g stall speed - influence of: - the centre of gravity - power setting - altitude / IAS - wing loading - load factor n: - definition  - turns - forces

- The initial stall in span-wise direction - influence of plan form - aerodynamic twist (wash out) - geometric twist - use of ailerons - influence of fences, vortilons, saw teeth and vortex generators

- Special phenomena of stall - the power-on stall - climbing and descending turns - swept back wings - super- or deep-stall, stick pusher - canards - T-tailed aircraft - avoidance of spins: - spin development - spin recognition - spin recovery

- ice (in stagnation point and on surface): - absence of stall warning - abnormal behaviour of the stall - stabilizer stal

- Stall warning - importance of stall warning - speed margin - buffet - stall strip - flapper switch - AOA vane - AOA probe - stick shaker - recovery from stall

 i) CLmax augmentation - Trailing edge flaps and the reasons for use in take-off and landing - different types of flaps: - split flap - plain flap  - slotted flap - fowler flap  - their influence on the CL – α graph - their influence on the CL – CD graph - flap asymmetry - influence on pitch movement
 - Leading edge devices and the reasons for use in take-off and landing - different types: - Krueger flaps - variable camber flaps - slats - their influence on the CL – α graph - their influence on the CL – CD graph - slat asymmetry - normal/automatic operation
 - Vortex generators - aerodynamic principles - advantages - disadvantages

j) Means to decrease the CL – CD ratio, increasing drag - Spoilers and the reasons for use in the different phases of flight - different functions: - flight spoilers (speedbrakes) - ground spoilers (lift dumpers) - roll spoilers - spoiler-mixer - their influence on the CL - α graph - their influence on the CL – CD graph and ratio  - Speedbrakes as a means of increasing drag and the reasons for use in the different phases of flight - the influence on the CL – CD graph ratio

 k) The boundary layer - Different types - laminar - turbulent - Their advantages and disadvantages on pressure drag and friction drag

 l) Special circumstances - Ice and other contamination - ice in stagnation point - ice on the surface (frost, snow, clear ice) - rain - contamination of the leading edge - effects on stall - effects on loss of controllability - effects on control surface movement - influence on high lift devices during take-off, landing and low speeds - affect on lift/drag ratio
- Deformation and modification of airframe, ageing aircraft 

2.2 Transonic Aerodynamics
- The Mach number definition - speed of sound - influence of temperature and altitude - compressibility
- Normal shockwaves - Mcrit and exceeding Mcrit - Influence of: - mach number - control deflection - angle of attack - aerofoil thickness - angle of sweep - area ruling - CL – α graph - CLmax - CD - CL – CD - Aerodynamic heating - Shock stall / Mach buffet
- Influence on: - drag - pitch (Mach trim): - contribution of: - movement of the centre of pressure - angle of sweep - down-wash
- Buffet margin, aerodynamic ceiling

- Means to avoid the effects of exceeding Mcrit - Vortex generators - Supercritical profile - shape - influence of aerofoil shape on shockwaves - advantages and disadvantages of supercritical aerofoil

2.3 Stability

a) Condition of equilibrium in stable horizontal flight - precondition for static stability - sum of moments - lift and weight - drag and thrust - sum of forces - in horizontal plane - in vertical plane
b) Methods of achieving balance - Wing and empennage (tail and canard) - control surfaces - Ballast or weight trim
c) Longitudinal stability - Basics and definitions - Static stability, positive, neutral and negative - precondition for dynamic stability - dynamic stability, positive, neutral and negative - damping:  - phugoid - short period

 - effect of high altitude on dynamic stability - static stability - neutral point/location of neutral point - definition - Contribution of: - aircraft geometry - down-wash - a.c. of the wing - Location of centre of gravity - aft limit, minimum stability margin - forward position - effects on static and dynamic stability - The CM – α graph
- Contribution of: - location of centre of gravity - control deflection - major aircraft parts (wings, fuselage, tail) - configuration: - flap deflection - gear extension - The elevator position – speed graph (IAS) - Contribution of; - location of centre of gravity - trim (trim tab) - trim (stabilizer trim) - Mach number/Mach trim - friction in the system - down spring - bob weight - The manoeuvring /stick force per g - Contribution of: - location of centre of gravity - trim - down spring - bob weight  - Stick force per g and the limit load factor - category of certification - Special circumstances - ice: - effects of flap extension - effects of stabilizer ice - rain - deformation of airframe

d) Static directional stability - Slip angle ß - Yaw moment coefficient CN - CN – ß graph - Contribution of : - location of centre of gravity - angle of sweep of the wing - fuselage at high angles of attack - strakes - dorsal fin and angle of sweep of fin - major aircraft parts

e) Static lateral stability - Bank angle ø - The roll moment coefficient CL - Contribution of angle of slip ß - The CL – ß graph - Contribution of: - angle of sweep of wing - ventral fin - location of the wing - dihedral / anhedral - Effective lateral stability

 f) Dynamic lateral stability - effects of asymmetric propeller slipstream - Tendency to spiral dive - Dutch roll - causes - Mach - yaw damper  - Effects of altitude on dynamic stability

 2.4 Control

a) General - Basics, the Three Planes and Three Axis - Camber change - Angle of attack change
b) Pitch Control - Elevator - Down-wash effects - Ice on tail - Location of centre of gravity
c) Yaw Control - Pedal/Rudder ratio changer - Moments due to engine thrust - direct - induced - Engine failure - rudder limitations at asymmetric thrust - meaning of VMCA, VMCG
d) Roll Control - Ailerons - inboard ailerons - outboard ailerons - function in different phases of flight - Spoilers - Adverse yaw - Means to avoid adverse yaw - frise ailerons - differential aileron deflection - coupling ailerons to rudder by spring - roll spoilers - effects of asymmetric propeller slip stream
e) Interaction in different planes (yaw/roll) - limitations of asymmetric power
f) Means to reduce control forces - Aerodynamic balance - nose balance - horn balances - internal balances - balance tab, anti-balance tab - servo tab - spring tab - Artificial - power assisted controls - fully powered controls - artificial feel: - inputs: - dynamic pressure q - stabilizer setting
g) Mass Balance - reasons to balance - means
h) Trimming - reasons to trim - trim tabs - stabilizer trim/trim rate versus IAS - position of centre of gravity influence on trim/stabilizer setting for take-off

 2.5 Limitations

a) Operating limitations
      - flutter - aileron reversal - gear/flap operating - VMO, VNO, VNE - MMO
b) Manoeuvring envelope
 - Manoeuvring load diagram - load factor - accelerated stall speed - VA, VC, VD - manoeuvring limit load factor/certification category
 - Contribution of: - mass - altitude - Mach number
c) Gust Envelope
- Gust load diagram - vertical gust speeds - accelerated stall speed - VB, VC, VD - gust limit load factor - VRA
- Contribution of: - mass - altitude - Mach number

2.6 Propellers
a) Conversion of engine torque to thrust
- meaning of pitch - blade twist - fixed pitch and variable pitch/constant speed - propeller efficiency versus speed - effects of ice on propeller
b) Engine failure or engine stop
- Windmilling drag - influence on yaw moment when asymmetric power
- Feathering - influence on glide performance - influence on yaw moment when asymmetric power
c) Design feature of power absorption
- aspect ratio of blade - diameter of propeller - number of blades - propeller noise
d) Moments and couples due to propeller operation
- Torque reaction - Gyroscopic precession - Asymmetric slipstream effect - Asymmetric blade effect 

2.7 Flight Mechanics
a) Forces action on an airplane
- Straight horizontal steady flight - Straight steady climb - Straight steady descent - Straight steady glide
- Steady coordinated turn - bank angle - load factor - turn radius - angular velocity - rate one turn  
b) Asymmetric Thrust 
- Moments about the vertical axis - Influence of bank angle - overbanking - finstall - Influence of aircraft weight - Influence of use of ailerons - Influence of special propeller effects on roll moments - propeller torque - propeller wash on flaps - Influence of slip angle on roll moments - VMCA - VMCL - VMCG - Influence of altitude 
c) Emergency Descent 
- Influence of configuration - Influence of chosen mach number and IAS - Typical points on polar curve 
d) Wind shear