CPL DGCA Theory Examination Syllabus - Aviation Meteorology

1.1 The Atmosphere
a) Composition, extent, vertical division
b) Temperature - vertical distribution of temperature - transfer of heat: solar and terrestrial radiation, conduction, convection, advection and turbulence - lapse rate, stability and instability - development of inversions, types of inversions - temperature near the earth’s surface, surface effects, diurnal - variation, effect of clouds, effect of wind
c) Atmospheric pressure - barometric pressure, isobars - pressure variation with height, contours (isohypses) - reduction of pressure to mean sea level, QFF - surface low/upper-air low, surface high/upper-air high-precipitation
d) Atmospheric density : interrelationship of pressure, temperature and density
e) International Standard Atmosphere (ISA)
f) Altimetry - pressure altitude, true altitude - height, altitude, flight level - altimeter settings: QNH, QFE, 1013.25 hPa - effect of accelerated airflow due to topography

1.2 Wind
a) Definition and measurement
b) Primary cause of wind - primary cause of wind, pressure gradient, coriolis force, gradient wind - relationship between isobars and wind
c) General circulation - general circulation around the globe
d) Turbulence - Turbulence and gustiness, types of turbulence - origin and location of turbulence
e) Variation of wind with height - variation of wind in the friction layer
f) Local winds: Anabatic and katabatic winds, land and sea breezes, venturi effects
g) Standing waves - origin of standing waves

1.3 Thermodynamics
a) Humidity - water vapour in the atmosphere - temperature / dew point, mixing ratio, relative humidity

1.4 Clouds and Fog
a) Clouds formation and description - cloud types, cloud classification - influence of inversions on cloud development
b) Fog, mist, haze - radiation fog - advection fog - steaming fog - frontal fog - orographic fog

1.5 Precipitation
a) Development of precipitation - development of precipitation - types of precipitation - type of precipitation, relationship with cloud types

1.6 Airmasses and Fronts
a) Types of airmasses - description, factors, affecting the properties of an airmass - classification of airmasses, modifications of airmasses, areas of origin
b) Fronts - boundaries between airmasses (fronts), general situation, geographic differentiation - warm front, associated clouds and weather - cold front, associated clouds and weather - Warm sector, associated clouds and weather - weather behind the cold front - occlusions, associated clouds and weather - stationary front, associated clouds and weather - movement of fronts and pressure systems, life cycle

1.7 Pressure Systems
a) Location of the principal pressure areas
b) Anticyclone: Anticyclones, types, general properties, cold and warm anticyclones, ridges and wedges, subsidence
c) Non frontal depressions - thermal, orographic – and secondary depressions, cold air pools, trough
d) Tropical revolving storms

1.8 Climatology
a) Typical weather situations in mid-latitudes - westerly waves - high pressure area - uniform pressure pattern
b) Local seasonal weather and wind
 - SE & NE Monsoon, Pre-Monsoon, Northwesters, Kalbaisakhi - Western Disturbance

1.9 Flight Hazards
a) Icing - weather conditions for ice accretion, topographical effects
b) Turbulence - effects on flight, avoidance
c) Windshear - definition of windshear - weather conditions for windshear - effects on flight
d) Thunderstorms - structure of thunderstorms, squall lines, life history, storm cells, electricity in the atmosphere, static charges - conditions for and process of development, forecast, location, type specification - Thunderstorm avoidance, ground/airborne radar, storm scope - development and effect of down bursts - development of lightning discharge and effect of lightning strike on aircraft and flight execution
e) Low and high level inversions: Influence on aircraft performance
f) Hazards in mountainous areas - influence of terrain on clouds and precipitation, frontal passage - vertical movements, mountain waves, windshear, turbulence, ice accretion - development and effect of valley inversions
g) Visibility reducing phenomena - reduction of visibility caused by mist, smoke, dust, sand and precipitation - reduction of visibility caused by low drifting and blowing snow

1.10. Meteorological Information 
a) Observation - On the ground – surface wind, visibility and runway visual range, transmissometers; Clouds – type, amount, height of base and tops, movement; Weather – including all types of precipitation, air temperature, relative humidity, dew point, atmospheric pressure - aircraft observations and reporting, data link systems, PIREPS - 
b) Weather Charts - significant weather charts - surface charts - upper air charts - symbols and signs on analysed and prognostic charts - 
c) Information for Flight Planning - Aeronautical codes: METAR, TAF, SPECI, SIGMET, SNOWTAM, runway report - Meteorological broadcasts for aviation: VOLMET, ATIS, HFVOLMET, ACARS - Content and use of pre-flight meteorological documents - Meteorological briefing and advice - measuring and warning systems for low level windshear, inversion - Special meteorological warnings